Polyamine In Water Treatment
Polyamine is an organic compound having more than two amino groups. Alkyl polyamines occur naturally but are also synthetic. Alkylpolyamines are colorless, hygroscopic, and water soluble. Near neutral pH, they exist as the ammonium derivatives. Most aromatic polyamines are crystalline solids at room temperature.
Polyamines are organic polymers used in water clarification, oil water separation, color removal, waste treatment and latex coagulation in rubber plants. Also used in the coating and paper industry as well as numerous applications including meat process waste treatment like chicken plant waste. We makes many different grades of polyamines with solids ranging 35 to 50%.
It is very effective in coagulating colloidal dispersions. It is especially effective as a deposit control agent when applied to pulp, stock, wires, or felts. It is also effective in removing organics and color from recirculating or effluent streams in pulp and paper mills. However, the most cost effective product should be selected based on a performance evaluation using the particular feed or stream intended for treatment. It may be fed neat or diluted in-line into the point of treatment.
The dosage will depend upon the severity of the problem. When applied to pulp or stock for deposit control, the dosage can range from 0.25 - 2.5 Kgs of polyamine per ton of pulp or stock (dry basis).
When it is applied for control of deposits on the forming fabric, the dosage can range from 0.10 - 1.0 ml/min per 1 foot of fabric width.
Storage and handling
Polyamine should be stored at 10–32°C.Short-term exposure to higher or lower temperatures will not normally harm the product. If frozen, it should be warmed to 26 – 37°C. and mixed well prior to use.
The shelf life:12 months.
Low-molecular-weight linear polyamines are found in all forms of life. The principal examples are the triamine and tetraamine spermidine and spermine. They are structurally and biosynthetically related to the diamines putrescine and cadaverine. Polyamine metabolism is regulated by the activity of the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Polyamines are found in high concentrations in the mammalian brain.
Several synthetic polyamines are used in chemical industry and the research laboratory. They are mainly of interest as additives to motor oil and as co-reactants (hardeners) with epoxy resins. Many synthetic polyamines feature NCH2CH2N linkages:
Diethylenetriamine, abbreviated dien or DETA, (H2N-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH2. The related permethylated derivative pentamethyldiethylenetriamine is used as a chelating agent in organolithium chemistry.
Triethylenetetramine (trien or TETA, H2N-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH2), tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA, H2N-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH2), pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA, H2N-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH2).
Macrocyclic polyamines: 1,4,7-triazacyclononane ((NHCH2CH2)3) and cyclen ((NHCH2CH2)4). A related tetraaza macrocycle is cyclam.
Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (N(CH2CH2NH2)3) is a branched polyamine. A related tripodal polyamine is 1,1,1-tris(aminomethyl)ethane.
The critical role of polyamines in cell growth has led to the development of a number of agents that interfere with polyamine metabolism. These agents are used in cancer therapy. Polyamine analogues upregulate p53 in a cell leading to restriction of proliferation and apoptosis. It also decreases the expression of estrogen receptor alpha in ER-positive breast cancer.
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